Solar Panels and Heat Pumps installation reclaim VAT Guide

UK Solar Panels VAT Update: Zero Rate from April 2022 – What You Need to Know

Starting April 2022, the VAT for solar panels and heat pumps in the UK has been reduced to 0%. This guide explains the VAT policies for solar panels across the UK, detailing eligibility, exceptions, and potential savings for both residential and commercial installations.

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VAT Eligibility for Solar Panels:

Most solar photovoltaic (PV) panels installed on residential properties throughout Scotland, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (effective from 1 May 2023) benefit from a 0% VAT rate. This exemption covers both purchase and installation costs, under the UK government’s Energy Saving Measures (ESMs).

Criteria for 0% VAT:

To qualify for 0% VAT, the solar panels must be newly purchased and installed on residential buildings. Installations must be carried out by approved installers to ensure compliance with government standards. Unfortunately, commercial properties generally do not qualify for the 0% rate.

Exceptions to Note:

There are specific cases where the standard 20% VAT rate applies. If the solar panels are purchased from one provider and installed by another, the higher rate is charged. Additionally, maintenance or repairs post-installation are also taxed at the standard rate.

Previous VAT Rates:

Prior to the 0% rate introduction, VAT for solar panels varied between 5% and 20%, based on specific conditions. The lower rate was reserved for domestic installations for seniors over 60 or those on certain benefits.

Duration of 0% VAT Rate:

The zero VAT rate on solar panels is set to continue until 31 March 2027, after which it will revert to a reduced rate of 5%, aligning with the government’s long-term financial and environmental strategies.

Solar Batteries and VAT:

Currently, solar batteries purchased without a solar panel system do not enjoy the 0% VAT benefit, which is set to change on 1st February 2024, allowing standalone batteries to also be purchased VAT-free.

Tax Implications on Solar Panel Income:

For residential installations under the Smart Export Guarantee, surplus electricity exported back to the grid is not subject to VAT or income tax. However, commercial properties may face different tax treatments.

VAT Reclaim Procedure for Solar Panels

Understanding the VAT Reclaim Process:

If you’re a business installing solar panels, you may be eligible to reclaim this VAT on your regular VAT returns. This can significantly reduce the overall cost of the investment, making solar panels a more attractive option for commercial entities.

Steps to Reclaim VAT:

  1. Ensure VAT Eligibility: First, confirm that the VAT paid on the solar panels is eligible for reclaim. Typically, VAT can be reclaimed on business expenses directly related to your taxable outputs.
  2. Keep Detailed Records: Maintain all receipts and invoices related to the purchase and installation of the solar panels. These documents must clearly show the VAT charged.
  3. Complete VAT Return: Include the reclaimable VAT amount in your VAT return form under the appropriate sections. The total VAT amount reclaimed will be deducted from the VAT you owe to the government.
  4. Submit VAT Return: Submit the VAT return to HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) by the deadline. Returns can usually be filed online, which is faster and allows for quicker processing.
  5. VAT Refund: If your total VAT reclaimed exceeds the VAT due in the period, you’ll receive a VAT refund from HMRC. Refunds are typically processed within 30 days of submitting the return.

Important Considerations:

  • Time Limits: There are time limits for reclaiming VAT, so ensure you file within the specified period from the date of purchase.
  • Partial Exemption Rules: If you use the solar panels for both taxable and exempt activities, partial exemption rules may apply, potentially limiting the amount of VAT you can reclaim.
  • Professional Advice: Due to the complexities involved, especially with partial exemptions and mixed-use properties, consulting with a VAT specialist or an accountant is highly recommended.


Understanding the VAT regulations for solar panels is essential for any potential investor. With varying rules based on the setup and use, it’s advisable to consult with a professional to navigate the complexities of solar investments.

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